Other Models

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Other Models – for Education and other forms of professional practice

Only recently have models of education started to be well-presented on the web. There are great gaps in comparing models of education and they are almost always presented in words, words, words. I appreciate the words but I like to think that to be a proper model there must also be at least a graphic representation as well. The SunWALK model is here

The InTime model – now this is what I call a model of education!

The InTime Model of Education



The Quality Education Model

Education and Culture (Riesman model)

Re-inventing Schools – A New Model of Education National Academy of Sciences

Models of Distance Learning

Charter Schools USA Educational Model

Arts in Education Model Development and Dissemination Grants Program

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Comparison of Educational Models http://www.expo.spps.org/Comparison_of_Educational_Models.html

Conventional Emerging Innovations

Focuses on logical, rational thought as the center of the educational experience.

Focuses on all aspects – rational, sensory perception, emotions feelings, intuition, imagination.

Uses external tension for motivation (e.g. grading, competing, comparing).

Uses involvement and empowerment to activate intrinsic motivation and inner tension of seeking answers and exploration.

Focuses on class assignment styles drawn from school curriculum.

Focuses on individual learning, individual needs and project, and small group processes.

Focuses on set curriculum given at same time and same way for all learners.

Responds to interest and abilities of learners while following curriculum outline.

Focuses on learning information.

Focuses on learning how to learn.

Talks about curriculum development.

Talks about human development.

Measures progress by what people learn.

Measures progress by how ell people learn, enjoy learning, and go on learning.

Teaches subject matter through lectures and textbooks.

Teaches student by exploring multi-sensory information in many ways.

Focuses on knowing correct answers given by authorities.

Considers diverse points of view. Elicits new questions and answers.

Focuses on controlling the learner (e.g., reward and punishment)

Focuses on empowering the learner and developing inner focus of control and self-responsibility.

Views learning as an arduous process requiring forbearance and perseverance.

Views learning as an exciting process of growing and knowing – a joyful exploration.

Compiled by Paul R. Messier, Ph.D., U.S. Dept. of Education, September 1990. Copied from The Brain Based Education Networker, Summer, 1991 issue


Big Rock Sudbury School

Below find a simplified table comparing the Sudbury philosophy to some of the most common alternatives.

Type of School Traditional/Public Waldorf Montessori Sudbury
Government Principal/Teachers Principal/Teachers Principal/Teachers Students/Staff
Structure Authoritarian Authoritarian Authoritarian Democracy
Curriculum Mandated Mandated Quasi-Mandated Up to Students
Evaluation Grades/Tests Reports Critical Encouragement Self
Motivation Reward/
Submersion in the
Creative Arts
Given Tasks
Questions students answer
teachers’ questions
students answer
teachers’ questions
students choose
a question to answer
teachers answer
students’ questions
Age mixing No No Some Yes
Campus Closed Closed Closed Open


Wikipedia – philosophy of education


Instructional Models for Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.


Summary of Rudolf Steiner’s Principles of Education

Comparing Waldorf Education to trends in Educational Philosophy and Practice: By Keith McLean

Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, ontessori, and Reggio Emilia Carolyn Pope Edwards University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Alternatives in Education: An Exploration of Learner-Centered, Progressive, and Holistic Education Robin Ann Martin


New Horizons for Learning


Thinkers on Education


Paths of Learning on-line Feature Articles and Resource Summaries


New Horizons for Learning – search for ‘models of education’ here


Commonwealth Education Organization – click here to go to their site

The On-going Education Wars – Comparison of Traditional and Progressive Education Models


Traditional (Classical)

Progressive (Constructionist)

Teacher’s Role

Academic instructor, source of knowledge, and authority figure

Facilitator, counselor, and mentor


Direct instruction by teacher in homogeneous groups

Self-directed learning, discovery learning, and cooperative work in heterogeneous groups

Student’s Role

· learn what the teacher teaches

· focus on intellectual, factual learning

· discover what they learn

· act as peer mediators, tutors and counselors

· focus on learning, feelings, and opinions


· focus on academic areas with facts, ideas, skills, methods

· based on research

· balance academic and social concerns

· concerned with student’s “higher order thinking”

· often based on unproven fads





· Direct Instruction of math concepts

· prefers “drill and skill”

· Interactive and discovery learning – “fuzzy” math

· rejects memorization

Social Studies

Focus on American heritage, national sovereignty, and cross-cultural studies

Focus on diversity, multiculturalism, and global citizenship


Emphasis on academic skills in traditional core areas / measured objectively

Emphasis on the “whole child” approach that blends psychological, social and cultural well-being of the child / measured subjectively


· periodic use of objective achievement tests

· students evaluated by grades they earn

· use assessment tests

· the 4 P’s – posters, portfolios, projects, PowerPoint

· grades inflated so all students succeed



Citizenship and self-control

Relativism and self-esteem


Equal opportunity

Equal outcome

PT3 Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use Technology

Multi-cultural Education resources at InTime

InTime site map – Integrating New Technologies into Methods of Education (see what millions of dollars can do – yes I am sick with envy! – donations gratefully received!)


Epistemological Foundations for CSCL: A Comparison of Three Models of Innovative Knowledge Communities Paavola, Lipponen, & Hakkarainen

Overview: Outdoor Education Theory


Bill Huitt’s – ‘Humanism and Open Education’


New Horizons Journal

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